The smallest protected area in Bhutan, Khaling Wildlife Sanctuary sprawls across 273 sq km. It is situated in the Samdrup Jongkhar dzongkhag of the country and is an extended modification of the former Neoli Wildlife Sanctuary. Thus, it is also referred to as Khaling Neoli Wildlife Sanctuary. Situated on the southeastern border of Bhutan, Khaling Wildlife Sanctuary has Assam of India to its east and south, River Nyera Ama Chhu to its west, and Martshala and Shingkhar Lauri geogs to its north.
There have been no notable protected area surveys conducted here yet the sanctuary is famous for being a top-class habitat for the rare pygmy hog, Asian elephant and tiger. Other wild animals found here are guar and hispid hares along with other tropical animal species. The major human settlements in the sanctuary are Samrang and Daifam and human population is chiefly concentrated to the southwestern and southeastern parts of the sanctuary. The sub-tropical forests in this sanctuary are mainly divided into two forest reserves known as Khaling and Neoli and it is being planned to combine them without changing the size.
The Khaling reserve on the Assam side of the Indo-Bhutan border forms the trans frontier reserve. The altitudes in Khaling Neoli wildlife sanctuary ranges from almost plain at 150 m to 1500 m and the forest cover here consists of broadleaf evergreen forests, semi-evergreen rain forests, hill evergreen subtropical forests and grasslands. The area has been marked by Birdlife International as one of the important bird areas and the site for bird conservation in Bhutan and you may spot rare avian fauna species such as chestnut-breasted partridge and rufous-necked hornbill.